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Piazza Saffi al tramonto

ככר העיר בשקיעה צילם:Perkele

המקור: By : Richard Gottheil Ismar Elbogen

City in the Romagna, Italy. It is mentioned for the first time in connection with Jewish history by Hillel of Verona, who lived at Forli for some time about 1290, and there wrote his circular letter to Maestro Gaio and his work "Tagmule ha-Nefesh." The community then seems to have been a small one; for Hillel felt like an exile, rarely receiving news of the outside world. The community continued to exist, however, and in 1373 a Mishneh Torah was sold there to R. Jekuthiel b. Abigdor of Forli (Cod. Oxford, No. 601). Forli became noted through the congress of representatives from the communities of Rome, Padua, Ferrara, Bologna, Romagna, and Tuscany, held there May 18, 1418. In conformity with the resolutions formulated at Bologna in Dec., 1415, it was decided to send a deputation to Pope Martin V. at Rome to obtainfrom him new privileges and confirmation of the old ones. A tax of 1½ ducats on every 1,000 ducats in money and real estate was levied upon the communities in order to pay the heavy expenses of this embassy and other expenses necessary for the common good; the individual members, with the exception of those receiving alms, were also taxed ½ to 1½ ducats, according to their means. Provisions were likewise made for regulating the collection of the taxes and the organization of the communities.

The same congress issued several decrees pertaining to the internal affairs of the communities, which were evidently intended, on the one hand, to elevate their moral tone, and, on the other hand, to avoid everything that might attract the attention or the envy of the Christian population. The people were forbidden to play cards or dice or to permit the same to be played in their houses; men and women alike were forbidden to wear luxurious garments or ornaments, or to go through the streets together in large numbers; display at banquets and family festivals and the pompous escort of brides were greatly restricted; sexual immorality in particular was severely condemned. These decrees were to remain in force till the end of 5186 (= 1426); all violations were to be punished by fines or by excommunication; and the men were held responsible for the women. The decrees were signed by the Jews of Forli as well as by the foreign delegates.

Nothing is known of the subsequent history of the community of Forli. It doubtless shared the varied fortunes of the other Jews in the Pontifical States in the sixteenth century (compare Bologna), and was dissolved when the Jews were expelled. Nor did any Jews return to the city.

The following rabbis and scholars of Forli are known: Elijah b. Menahem Alatrini; Moses b. Jekuthiel Ḥefeẓ, a member of the Zifroni family, who in 1383 copied for David b. Solomon Rofe the Codex Almanzi No. 79; Elijah b. Moses Alatrini, who copied (1389) MS. de Rossi No. 286 for Moses b. Daniel of Forli; Aaron Strassburg, 1486; Elias b. Isaac da Mestre, who wrote a mathematical work in 1497 (Codex Michael, No. 185); Solomon b. Eliakim Finzi, rabbi at Forli in 1536; Eliezer b. Benjamin Finzi of Arezzo, rabbi in 1537; and about the same time Abraham b. Daniel da Modena and Asher b. Isaiah da Montagna occupied the rabbinate.

Bibliography: On Hillel of Verona, comp. Tagmule ha-Nefesh, ed. Lyck, Introduction; on the congress at Forli, Gratz Jubelschrift, Hebr. text, pp. 53 et seq.; on the rabbis, Mortara, Indice.G. I. E.


Read more: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=260&letter=F&search=forli#ixzz0vTV2MnCu

la cumunita ebraicaעריכה

(הועתק מהויקיפדיה האיטלקית)

Forlì, Archivio di Stato, registri cinquecenteschi e seicenteschi del fondo

Forlì, Archivio di Stato, registri cinquecenteschi e seicenteschi del fondo «Comune di Forlì` Antico» avvolti con manoscritti ebraici medievali in pergamena (Chiara Pilocane; FRAMMENTI DI MANOSCRITTI EBRAICI MEDIEVALI RIUSATI IN LEGATURE A RIMINI E FORLI`; Materia giudaica; IX/1-2 (2004))


Forlì è stata sede, per secoli, di una fiorente anche se non sempre numerosa comunità ebraica, in particolare nel periodo dell'autogoverno cittadino, fino al Cinquecento. Già nel XIII seolo, comunque, la presenza della comunità ebraica era attestata.

La comunitàעריכה

La Forlì medioevale vide la presenza di una fiorente comunità di Ebrei: si ha notizia dell'esistenza d'una scuola ebraica in città fin dal XIII secolo, mentre la più antica immagine italiana dell'araldica ebraica (1383) proviene da Forlì: si trova in un manoscritto appartenuto ad un certo Daniele di Samuele, oggi al British Museum; inoltre, uno statuto civico forlivese del 1359 ci testimonia la stabilità della presenza degli Ebrei e dei loro banchi. Insomma, Forlì fu un importante centro di affari e di vita culturale ebraica. Anzi, nel Medio Evo, gli Ebrei a Forlì potevano possedere terreni e fabbricati. Col Cinquecento, però, la possibilità si restrinse ai soli fabbricati, anche a causa del passaggio della città al dominio diretto dello Stato della Chiesa.[1]

Il Congresso del 1418עריכה

Da segnalare, a tal proposito, è l'importante congresso dei delegati delle comunità ebraiche di Padova, di Ferrara, di Bologna, delle città della Romagna e della Toscana, nonché di Roma, che fu convocato a Forlì il 18 maggio 1418: vi si presero decisioni sul comportamento (etico e sociale) che gli Ebrei avrebbero dovuto tenere e si inviò una delegazione al Papa Martino V per la conferma degli antichi privilegi e la concessione di nuovi.

Manoscrittiעריכה

A ulteriore riprova della significativa presenza ebraica nella Forlì medioevale, sono conservati, nell'Archivio di Stato di Forlì, dei registri dei secoli XVI e XVII avvolti con manoscritti medioevali ebraici in pergamena.[2]


Most of the 15th-century Italian maḥzorim are personal rather than synagogal prayer books, stressing the daily prayers, and containing a Haggadah which was recited at home. They are therefore small, handy to carry to and from the synagogue, with the prayers arranged for the individual, starting with the daily and Sabbath prayers and the Festival ones. These illuminated small maḥzorim were not usually extensively illustrated; besides the decorated openings of prayers, they contained fairly simple marginal pen drawings. Good early examples are those related to famous families of northern and central Italy. Such are maḥzorim executed at the order of Daniel b. Samuel ha-Rofe b. Daniel ha-Dayyan, one at Bertinoro in 1390 (Bodleian Library, Ms. Can. Or. 81) and another at Forli in 1393 (British Museum, Add. Ms. 26968). In these works, as in others done for the same patron, the tinted drawings are of Lombard style. A maḥzor from Pisa of 1397 ordered by another well-known patron, Jehiel b. Mattathias of the Beit-El family (Sassoon Ms. 1028), is in the same style. Some of the text illustrations in these maḥzorim resemble those of the traditional Ashkenazi ones: a horn-blower for the New Year; a sukkah for Tabernacles; the balance for Sabbath Shekalim; a crescent and star for Sabbath Ha-Ḥodesh; and more detailed illustrations for the Passover Haggadah

המקור

L'Ebreo erranteעריכה

Con tutto questo non stupisce che Guido Bonatti segnali che a Forlì, nel XIII secolo, sia stato avvistato, da varie persone, il mitico Ebreo errante.

Personalità ebraiche legate a Forlìעריכה


Noteעריכה

  1. M. Tabanelli, Una città di Romagna nel Medio Evo e nel Rinascimento, Magalini Editrice, Brescia 1980, p. 204.
  2. http://gheniza-berit.blogspot.com/2007/02/frammenti-dei-piu-antichi-manoscritti.html.

Collegamenti esterniעריכה

]]

העתקה של תוכן המאמר

By : Richard Gottheil Ismar Elbogen City in the Romagna, Italy. It is mentioned for the first time in connection with Jewish history by Hillel of Verona, who lived at Forli for some time about 1290, and there wrote his circular letter to Maestro Gaio and his work "Tagmule ha-Nefesh." The community then seems to have been a small one; for Hillel felt like an exile, rarely receiving news of the outside world. The community continued to exist, however, and in 1373 a Mishneh Torah was sold there to R. Jekuthiel b. Abigdor of Forli (Cod. Oxford, No. 601). Forli became noted through the congress of representatives from the communities of Rome, Padua, Ferrara, Bologna, Romagna, and Tuscany, held there May 18, 1418. In conformity with the resolutions formulated at Bologna in Dec., 1415, it was decided to send a deputation to Pope Martin V. at Rome to obtainfrom him new privileges and confirmation of the old ones. A tax of 1½ ducats on every 1,000 ducats in money and real estate was levied upon the communities in order to pay the heavy expenses of this embassy and other expenses necessary for the common good; the individual members, with the exception of those receiving alms, were also taxed ½ to 1½ ducats, according to their means. Provisions were likewise made for regulating the collection of the taxes and the organization of the communities.The same congress issued several decrees pertaining to the internal affairs of the communities, which were evidently intended, on the one hand, to elevate their moral tone, and, on the other hand, to avoid everything that might attract the attention or the envy of the Christian population. The people were forbidden to play cards or dice or to permit the same to be played in their houses; men and women alike were forbidden to wear luxurious garments or ornaments, or to go through the streets together in large numbers; display at banquets and family festivals and the pompous escort of brides were greatly restricted; sexual immorality in particular was severely condemned. These decrees were to remain in force till the end of 5186 (= 1426); all violations were to be punished by fines or by excommunication; and the men were held responsible for the women. The decrees were signed by the Jews of Forli as well as by the foreign delegates.Nothing is known of the subsequent history of the community of Forli. It doubtless shared the varied fortunes of the other Jews in the Pontifical States in the sixteenth century (compare Bologna), and was dissolved when the Jews were expelled. Nor did any Jews return to the city.The following rabbis and scholars of Forli are known: Elijah b. Menahem Alatrini; Moses b. Jekuthiel Ḥefeẓ, a member of the Zifroni family, who in 1383 copied for David b. Solomon Rofe the Codex Almanzi No. 79; Elijah b. Moses Alatrini, who copied (1389) MS. de Rossi No. 286 for Moses b. Daniel of Forli; Aaron Strassburg, 1486; Elias b. Isaac da Mestre, who wrote a mathematical work in 1497 (Codex Michael, No. 185); Solomon b. Eliakim Finzi, rabbi at Forli in 1536; Eliezer b. Benjamin Finzi of Arezzo, rabbi in 1537; and about the same time Abraham b. Daniel da Modena and Asher b. Isaiah da Montagna occupied the rabbinate.Bibliography: On Hillel of Verona, comp. Tagmule ha-Nefesh , ed. Lyck, Introduction; on the congress at Forli, Gratz Jubelschrift , Hebr. text, pp. 53 et seq. ; on the rabbis, Mortara, Indice .G. I. E.

תרגום אוטומטי

מאת: ריצ 'רד גוטהייל Ismar Elbogen סיטי רומניה, איטליה. היא מוזכרת לראשונה בקשר עם ההיסטוריה היהודית על ידי הלל ורונה, שהתגורר בבית פורלי זמן על 1290, ושם כתב בחוזר שלו מאסטרו Gaio ויצירתו "חה Tagmule-נפש." הקהילה ואז כנראה אחד קטן; עבור הלל התחשק הגלות, רק לעתים נדירות קבלת החדשות של העולם החיצון. הקהילה המשיכה להתקיים, לעומת זאת, בשנת 1373 משנה תורה היה נמכר שם ב ר Jekuthiel Abigdor של פורלי (Cod. אוקספורד, מס '601).

פורלי הפך ציין באמצעות הקונגרס של נציגי הקהילות של רומא, פדובה, פררה, בולוניה,רומניה, וטוסקנה, שנערך שם 18 מאי 1418. בהתאם להחלטות שגובשו על בולוניה ב דצמבר, 1415, הוחלט לשלוח משלחת האפיפיור מרטין החמישי ברומא כדי obtainfrom אותו חדש הרשאות ואישור הישנים. המס של ½ 1 דוקאטים על כל 1,000 דוקאטים על כסף אמיתי ן הוטל על הקהילות, על מנת לשלם את ההוצאות הכבדות של השגרירות זה ואחרים ההוצאות הדרושות למען טובת הכלל; בני אדם, למעט מי שקיבל נדבות, היו חייבים במס גם ½ כדי ½ 1 דוקאטים, לפי האמצעים שלהם. הוראות נעשו גם לגבי המסדיר את גביית המסים ואת הארגון של הקונגרס באותה communities.The שהונפקו גזירות כמה הנוגעים בעניינים הפנימיים של הקהילות, אשר נועדו ככל הנראה, על יד אחת, כדי לרומם את הטון המוסרי שלהם, ואת, לעומת זאת, כדי למנוע כל דבר שעשוי למשוך את תשומת הלב או את קנאת האוכלוסייה הנוצרית. העם לא הורשו לשחק קלפים או קוביות או אישור זהה ניתן לשחק בו את בתיהם; גברים ונשים כאחד נאסר ללבוש מפואר בגדים או קישוטים, או ללכת ברחובות יחד במספרים גדולים; להציג בסעודות ופסטיבלים משפחה הליווי נפוח של הכלות היו מוגבלות מאוד, מוסריות מינית בפרט היה בחומרה רבה. גזירות אלה היו בתוקף עד סוף שנת 5186 (= 1426); הפרות היו כל להיענש על ידי קנסות או נידוי, והגברים היו אחראים הנשים. הצווים נחתמו על ידי יהודי פורלי, כמו גם על ידי delegates.Nothing החוץ

ידוע של ההיסטוריה המאוחרת יותר של הקהילה של פורלי. זה ללא ספק היה שותף הון מגוונת של יהודים אחרים האפיפיורית הברית במאה השש עשרה (להשוות בולוניה), ו פורקה כאשר היהודים היו גורש. גם לא כל היהודים לחזור אל הרבנים הבאים city.The וחוקרים של פורלי ידועים: אליהו בAlatrini מנחם: משה ב Jekuthiel חפץ, חבר של המשפחה צפרוני, אשר בשנת 1383 העתיק של דוד ב שלמה רופא Almanzi כתר מספר 79: אליהו ב משה Alatrini, אשר העתיק (1389) MS. דה רוסי מס '286 עבור משה ב דניאל של פורלי; Strassburg אהרון, 1486; אליאס נולד יצחק דה מסטרה, שכתב מתמטי העבודה ב -1497 (כתר מיכאל, מס '185); שלמה ב אליקים פינצי, הרב ב פורלי בשנת 1536; אליעזר ב בנימין פינצי של ארצו, הרב ב 1537; ועל באותו הזמן אברהם b. דניאל דה מודנה אשר נולד ישעיהו דה Montagna כבשו את rabbinate.Bibliography: על הלל של ורונה, comp. חה Tagmule-נפש, ed. Lyck, מבוא: על הקונגרס ב פורלי, גראץ Jubelschrift, Hebr. הטקסט, עמ '53 et seq. ;. על הרבנים, מורטרה, מדדי G. א א

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